Persatuan Kebudayaan Masyarakat Siam Negeri Kedah (PEKEMAS)

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Home Kebudayaan Asal usul Kesultanan Negeri Kedah (Kedah Sultanate)
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Kesultanan Negeri Kedah (Kedah Sultanate)

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Kedah Sultanate

Around 170 CE a group of native refugees of Hindu faith arrived at Kedah, joining them soon were peoples from nearby islands and from the northern Mon-Khmer region. Ancient Kedah covered the areas of Kuala Bahang, Kuala Bara, Kuala Pila and Merpah, and the inhabitants of Kedah appointed Tun Derma Dewa and Tun Perkasa as their village chiefs.

In the year 630 CE, Maharaja Derbar Raja of Gemeron (now known as Bandar Abbas) in Persia was defeated in battle and escaped to Sri Lanka, and he was later blown off course by a storm to the remote shores of Kuala Sungai Qilah, Kedah. The inhabitants of Kedah found him to be a valiant and intelligent person, and they made him the king of Kedah. In the year 634 CE, a new kingdom was formed in Kedah consisting of Persian royalty and native Malay of Hindu faith, the capital was Langkasuka.
In the early days, Kedah was known by the Indians as Kedaram, Kidaram, Kalagam and Kataha, and Kalah or Kalaha by the Persians.In the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah was under the domination of Srivijaya, and was later under SIAM, until the rise of the Malay sultanate of Melaka in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Kedah was attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Melaka, and by Aceh. In the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of Kedah from Siam, the sultan handed over Penang and then Province Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century. The SIAMESE nevertheless conquered Kedah in 1811, and it remained under Siamese control until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.

-Medieval History

Early in the Medieval era, Kedah became part of Srivijaya (the dominant Malay state and a major power in the Indian Ocean trade). This led to rivalries with the Indian states, especially the Cholas from the 9th to 13th centuries CE. The Cholas had a powerful merchant and naval fleet in the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. In the early 11th century, Chola King Rajendra Chola I sent an expedition to invade Kadaram on behalf of one of its rulers who sought his assistance to gain the throne. Chola dominance was brief, but effectively crippled the power of Srivijaya.

-Invasion of Chola

In the early 11th century, inscriptions indicate that ties of friendship still existed between Chola and Kadaram of Srivijaya, however the commercial monopoly claimed by the Srivijayan Maharajas led to their friendship ended. The first Chola attack began in the year 1025, Rajendra's army sack Kadaram and the Srivijaya capital and took the Srivijaya king Sangrama Vijayottungavarman captive. The kingdom was restored to him only after he acknowledged Chola's sovereignty. The aim of the Cholas was probably just to force the empire to open its shipping lanes as Srivijaya was some 1,500 miles remote and difficult to control. Recovered Tamil inscriptions from the region show that there was Chola military presence till at least year 1088 in the Malay archipelago.

Scholars like R.C. Majumdar think that the emperor despatched more than one expedition to humble the Srivijayas, with 13 towns in the archipelago sacked by the Cholas has come from Rajendra's own inscriptions with six located on the Malay peninsula, four on Sumatra, the other being the Nicobar islands. Paul Wheatley have been sceptical of Rajendra's claims about the number of towns his army sacked, but most agree that a raid did take place.

George Spencer pointed out that the campaign is plausible because it fits the Chola pattern of compulsive expansion in this period, fits the aim of Rajendra to exceed his father's accomplishments and fits the persistent Chola need to locate fresh sources of plunder or tribute. There is evidence to show that the king of Kambujadesa sent a chariot to the Chola, probably to appease him so that his strategic attention does not extend further than the Malay peninsula.

-Conversion to Islam

In the late 11th century, war infested Srivijaya sent ambassadors from Jambi and Palembang to China to seek peace solution against the Chola attack with newly emerging Jambi Muslims sent two more ambassadors to China in 1082 and 1088. This suggests that the power frequently shifted between Jambi and Palembang. Right after the Chola military left Kadaram(other name for Kedah), the 9th Hindu Rajah of Kedah Phra Ong Mahawangsa renounced the Hinduism and converted to Islam, which was introduced by Muslims from neighbouring Aceh, he also changed his name to Sultan Mudzafar Shah. He ruled the northern region of Malay Peninsula from 1136 to 1179.

-Kedah Rulers

Pre Islamic Kings

* Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbaraja, Raja of Langkasuka Kedah. Founder of the kingdom of Langkasuka.
* Sri Paduka Maharaja Diraja Putra
* Sri Paduka Maharaja Mahadewa
* Sri Paduka Maharaja Karnadiraja
* Sri Paduka Maharaja Karma
* Sri Paduka Maharaja Dewa II
* Sri Paduka Maharaja Dharmaraja I
* Sri Paduka Maharaja Mahajiwa. Styled "Phra Ong Maha Podisat" by the Siamese.

Sultans of Kedah

* Paduka Sri Sultan Muzaffar Shah I (1136–1179), styled "Phra Ong Mahawangsa" by the Siamese. Styled "Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja" before his accession.
* Sultan Muazzam Shah (1179–1201)
* Sultan Mohammed Shah (1201–1236)
* Sultan Maazul Shah (1236–1280)
* Sultan Mahmud Shah I (1280–1320)
* Sultan Ibrahim Shah (1320–1373)
* Sultan Sulaiman Shah I (1373–1422)
* Sultan Atadullah Muhammed Shah (1422–1472)
* Sultan Muhammed Jiwa Zainal Abidin I (1472–1506)
* Sultan Mahmud Shah II (1506–1546)
* Sultan Muzaffar Shah II (1546–1602)
* Sultan Sulaiman Shah II (1602–1625)
* Sultan Rijaluddin Shah (1625–1651)
* Sultan Muhiyuddin Shah (1651–1661)
* Sultan Ziauddin Al-Mukarram Shah (1661–1687)
* Sultan Atadullah Muhammed Shah II (1687–1698)
* Sultan Abdullah I Al-Muazzam Shah (1698–1706)
* Sultan Ahman Tajuddin Halim Shah I (1706–1709)
* Sultan Abdullah II (1709–1723)
* Sultan Atadullah Muhammed III (1723–1741)
* Sultan Muhammed Jiwa Zainal Abidin II (1741–1778)
* Sultan Abdullah Makarram Shah III (1778–1797)
* Sultan Ziyauddin Mukarram Shah II (1797–1803)
* Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin II Halim Shah (1803–1843)
* Sultan Zainal Rashid Muadzam Shah II (1843–1854)
* Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin III Mukarram Shah (1854–1879)
* Sultan Zainal Rashid Muadzam Shah III (1879–1881)
* Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah (1881–1943)
* Sultan Badli Shah (1943–1958)
* Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah (1958-)

-The Burney Treaty 1826

The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. The treaty was named after the head emissary from the East India Company, Henry Burney. It acknowledged Siamese claim over the four northern Malay states of Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu. The treaty further guaranteed British ownership of Penang and their rights to trade in Kelantan and Terengganu without the Siamese interference. The four Malay states were not represented in the treaty negotiation.

-The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909

The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a treaty between the United Kingdom and Siamese signed on March 10, 1909 in Bangkok.

The agreement, in which the Malays were not represented, effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts. The area around modern Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Thai control, while Thailand relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah(Saiburi), Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu which remained within the British sphere of influence as protectorates. These four states, along with Johor later became known as the Unfederated Malay States.

Originally, Satun and Perlis were part of the Malay Sultanate of Kedah but only Satun remained with Thailand. Patani, Narathiwat, Songkhla and Yala were historically ruled by the Malay Sultanate of Patani.

The British logic for sanctioning the continued Thai occupation of the remaining northern half of the Malaya was the perceived value of Thailand as a friendly buffer against the French in Indochina.

-Saiburi

Saiburi is the name for the Malay state of Kedah returned to Thailand when the Japanese occupied British Malaya during World War II.

In July 1943, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo announced that Kedah (along with Perlis, Kelantan and Terengganu) were to be returned to Thailand as part of the military alliance signed between Thailand and Japan on December 21, 1941.

From 18 October 1943 until the surrender of the Japanese at the end of the war, Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis were under Thai administration. On September 23, 1945, Kedah and the three other states were returned to the British.

The Siamese Influence on Malay Peninsula.

The Malay Peninsula was once known as Tanah Melayu (Malay Land). It extends from Singapore to the Isthmus of Kra bordering Burma, Thailand and Malay Land. Phuket is Bukit (hill) in Malay, "Satun" is "Setol" (a tropical fruit) was the Province of "Kedah" under the Malay Sultanate and Patani (Land of Farmers) was also part of the Malay Sultanate. In these areas people once spoke both English as well as Sam-sam, a local version of the Siamese language. The majority of residents were Muslims. Thailand pushed to dominate the peninsula as far as Malacca in the 1400s and held much of the peninsula for the next few centuries, including Temasek (Singapore) some of the Andaman Islands and a colony on Java, but eventually failed when the British used force to guarantee their suzerainty over the sultanate.

All the states of the Malay Sultanate presented annual gifts to the Thai king in the form of a golden flower, which understood the gesture to be tribute and an acknowledgement of vassalage(A vassal is one who enters into mutual obligations with a monarch in exchange for certain guarantees).

Ayutthaya Kingdom(1351-1767)

Ayutthaya was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Vietnamese (Annamese), Indians, Japanese and Persians, and later the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the city walls. In the sixteenth century, it was described by foreign traders as one of the biggest and wealthiest cities in the East. The court of King Narai (1656–1688) had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris.
Before Ayutthaya fell to a Burmese invasion, its vassals included the Northern Shan states of present-day Myanmar, Lanna (Chiang Mai, Thailand), Yunnan & Shan Sri (China), Lan Xang (Laos), Champa (Vietnam), and some city-states in the MALAY PENINSULA(Kedah).

According to foreign accounts, Ayutthaya was officially known as Siam, but many sources also say that the people of Ayutthaya called themselves Tai, and their kingdom Krung Tai or 'the Kingdom of the Tais'.

From the fifteenth century, Ayutthaya showed an interest in the MALAY PENINSULA, where the great trading port of Malacca contested its claims to sovereignty. Ayutthaya launched several abortive conquests on Malacca. Due to the military support of Ming China, Malacca was diplomatically and economically fortified. In the early fifteenth century the Ming Admiral Zheng He(Cheng Ho) had established one of his bases of operation in the port city, so the Chinese could not afford to lose such a strategic position to the Siamese. Under this protection, Malacca flourished into one of Ayutthaya's great foes, until its conquest in 1511 by the Portuguese.

Thonburi Kingdom(1768–1782)

Thon Buri was the capital of Thailand for a short time during the reign of King Taksin the Great, after the ruin of capital Ayutthaya by the Burmese. King Rama I removed the capital to Bangkok on the other side of the Chao Phraya River in 1782. Thon Buri stayed an independent town and province, and was merged into Bangkok in 1972.This is the period where Siam rose again after the Burmese destroy Ayutthaya.Despite its complete defeat and occupation by Burma, Siam made a rapid recovery. The resistance to Burmese rule was led by a noble of Chinese descent, Taksin, a capable military leader. Initially based at Chanthaburi in the south-east, within a year he had defeated the Burmese occupation army and re-established a Siamese state with its capital at Thonburi on the west bank of the Chao Phraya, 20 km from the sea. In 1768 he was crowned as King Taksin (now officially known as Taksin the Great). He rapidly re-united the central Thai heartlands under his rule, and in 1769 he also occupied western Cambodia. He then marched south and re-established Siamese rule over the MALAY PENINSULA as far south as PENANG and TERENGGANU. Having secured his base in Siam, Taksin attacked the Burmese in the north in 1774 and captured Chiang Mai in 1776, permanently uniting Siam and Lanna. Taksin's leading general in this campaign was Thong Duang, known by the title Chaophraya or Lord Chakri. In 1778 Chakri led a Siamese army which captured Vientiane, also Luang Phrabang, a northern Lao kingdom submitted, and eventually established Siamese domination over Laotian kingdoms.

Rattanakosin Kingdom(1782

Rattanakosin Kingdom or the Kingdom of Siam was the fourth Thai Kingdom, it was centered at the city of Bangkok. It included vassal states of Cambodia, Laos, and some MALAY KINGDOMS. The kingdom was founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke of the Chakri Dynasty. The first half of this period was a time of consolidation of the kingdom's power, and was punctuated by periodic conflicts with Burma, Vietnam and Laos. The later period was one of engagement with colonial powers of Britain and France, in which Siam managed to be the only southeast Asian nation to escape European colonialism. Internally the kingdom developed into a modern centralised nation state with borders defined by its interaction with the Western powers. Significant economic and social progress was made, with an increase in foreign trade, the abolition of slavery and the expansion of education to the emerging middle class. However, there was no substantial political reform until the abosulute monarchy was replaced in a revolution in 1932 by the constitutional monarchy. During Rama II's reign western influences again began to be felt in Siam. In 1785 the British occupied Penang, and in 1819 they founded Singapore. Soon the British displaced the Dutch and Portuguese as the main western economic and political influence in Siam. The British objected to the Siamese economic system, in which trading monopolies were held by royal princes and businesses were subject to arbitrary taxation. In 1821 the government of British India sent a mission to demand that Siam lift restrictions on free trade — the first sign of an issue which was to dominate 19th century Siamese politics.In 1825 the British sent another mission to Bangkok. They had by now annexed southern Burma and were thus Siam's neighbours to the west, and they were also extending their control over MALAYA. The King was reluctant to give in to British demands, but his advisors warned him that Siam would meet the same fate as Burma unless the British were accommodated. In 1826, therefore, Siam concluded its first commercial treaty with a western power. Under the treaty, Siam agreed to establish a uniform taxation system, to reduce taxes on foreign trade and to abolish some of the royal monopolies. As a result, Siam's trade increased rapidly, many more foreigners settled in Bangkok, and western cultural influences began to spread. The kingdom became wealthier and its army better armed.

The Siamese Revolution of 1932

The Siamese Revolution of 1932 or the Siamese Coup d'état of 1932 (การปฏิวัติสยาม พ.ศ. 2475 or การเปลี่ยนแปลงการปกครองสยาม พ.ศ. 2475) was a crucial turning point in Thai history in the 20th century. The revolution or the coup d'état was a bloodless transition on 24 June 1932, in which the system of government in Siam was changed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The revolution was brought about by a group of military and civilians, who formed Siam's first political party, Khana Ratsadon (Peoples' Party). The revolution ended 150 years of absolutism under the House of Chakri and almost 700 years of absolute rule of Kings over Thai history. The Revolution was a product of global historical change as well as social and political changes domestically. The revolution also resulted in the people of Siam being granted their first Constitution.Also in 1939, Phibun changed the country's name from Siam to Prathet Thai, or Thailand, meaning "land of the free."

Malaysia Independence

The effort for independence was spearheaded by Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, who led a delegation of ministers and political leaders of Malaya in negotiations with the British in London for Merdeka, or independence along with the first president of the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) Tun Dato Sir Tan Cheng Lock and fifth President of Malaysian Indian Congress Tun V.T. Sambanthan. Once it became increasingly clear that the Communist threat posed during the Malayan Emergency was petering out, agreement was reached on February 8, 1956, for Malaya to gain independence from the British Empire. However, for a number of logistical and administrative reasons, it was decided that the official proclamation of independence would only be made the next year, on August 31, 1957, at Stadium Merdeka (Independence Stadium), in Kuala Lumpur.

The formation of Malaysia

The Federation of Malaysia, comprising the States of Malaya, North Borneo (later renamed Sabah), Sarawak and Singapore was to be officially declared on the date August 31, 1963, on the 6th anniversary of Malayan independence. However, it was postponed to September 16, 1963, mainly due to Indonesian and the Philippines' opposition to the formation of Malaysia. Nevertheless, North Borneo and Singapore declared sovereignty on August 31, 1963. Indonesian opposition later escalated to a military conflict. Indonesia considered Malaysia as a new form of colonization on the provinces of Sarawak and Sabah in the island of Borneo (bordering Kalimantan, Indonesia), which they laid claim on. To assure Indonesia that Malaysia was not a form of neo-colonialism, a referendum, organized by the United Nations, and the Cobbold Commission, led by Lord Cobbold, were formed to determine whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak wished to join Malaysia. Their eventual findings which indicated substantial support for Malaysia among the peoples of Sabah and Sarawak, cleared the way for the final proclamation of Malaysia.

The formation of the Federation of Malaysia was then announced on September 16, 1963 as Malaysia Day.

Based on the historic event that i research, it is clearly seen that we are here long time ago. Since the Kingdom of Ayutthaya until Rattanakosin Kingdom, our ancestor have involve and presence in Malay Peninsula. This can be prove clearly on Burney Treaty 1826 and Anglo-Siamese Treaty 1909.Kedah was vassal state to many state including Siam, and in 1811, Siamese conquer Kedah and made in a vassal state until Anglo-Siamese Treaty 1909.

Our ancestor may come to Kedah as soldier, a farmer, merchant, diplomatic envoy or maybe immigrant from other part of Siamese Kingdom. The way, time and walk of life our ancestor come to Kedah are many but one conclusion remain, they settled in Kedah and started our line in Kedah.

When the Siamese Revolution began, Siam was no longer Siam, it was converted to Thailand and the remnant of Siamese in Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan and Terengganu are not effected by the revolution. In 1957,Malaya Peninsula also gain it independence from United Kingdom and we are effected by the change because we stay in Kedah. That also clearly made us one of the Bumiputera because we have stay here long and does not return to Thailand. We remain here on our ancestral land like the aborigine on their own land.
Last Updated ( Sunday, 18 July 2010 13:59 )  
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